Scientific Papers

Most of these articles are papers written for a scientific community. But for those that are interested in the tests done to validate this technology, the results can be found here. At the bottom of the list are references to U.S. patents in this field. These patents go back to 1914. This subject is not new.

There are a couple of abbreviations used frequently in these documents: ICE – Internal Combustion Engine, and SI – Spark Ignition; as in an “SI engine”.


NASA Paper

Cassidy, J.F., “Emissions and Total Energy Consumption of a Multi-Cylinder Piston Engine Running on Gasoline and a Hydrogen-Gasoline Mixture,” Technical Note Report # E-9105, May, 1977, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C.

Adding hydrogen to gasoline significantly increased flame speed and allows for a leaner air/fuel ratio. All emissions levels decreased at these leaner conditions.

Department of Transport

“Guidelines For Use Of Hydrogen Fuel In Commerecial Vehicles, Final Report”, November 2007.

This is report written by the U.S. Department of Transportaion giving the guidelines for using hydrogen supplementation to engines. It includes guidelines for using hydrogen from on board electrolyzers and hydrogen on demand systems such as are sold in our online store.

School of MME

Your “Onboard Generation of Hydrogen-Rich Gaseous Fuels – A Review,” , Y. Jamal and M.L.Wyszynski, School of Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering University of Birmingham, Birmingham UK

This article covers the use of hydrogen to lower emissions and increase fuel combustion efficiency. Includes results from numerous other researchers as well.

University of Idaho

Effect of Hydrogen Enriched Hydrocarbon Combustion on Emissions and Performance,” by Jacob Wall, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of Idaho

This article shows research done that demonstrates a reduction in emissions and an increase in fuel performance occurs using hydrogen from on board electrolyzers.

SAE Articles on Hydrogen The Society of Automotive Engineers have quite a few scientific papers on the subject of using hydrogen in internal combustion engines. They are not linked to in this document, because they are not free to download. However, many of these will be of interest to researchers in this subject.


U.S Patents

A Sampling of Relevant U.S. Patents: To see the complete patents, You can go to the US Patent office and see the entire patent. Just copy the patent numbers below and then go to this link. Paste in the patent number and you will be taken to the page that has all of the patent documents.



United States Patent #1,112,188 issued on September 29, 1914 to Leonard Atwood. A means for improving combustion by mixing different fuels.


“United States Patent #1,262,034 issued on April 9, 1918 to Charles Frazer. A hydro-oxygen generator for use with internal combustion engines.


United States Patent #1,490,975 issued on April 15, 1924 to William Howard. Improving internal combustion engines by introducing hydrogen gas to increase flame speed.


United States Patent #1,876,879 issued on September 13, 1932 to Walter Drabold. Improving internal combustion engines by varying the proportions of energized gases to supplement normal carburetion.


United States Patent #2,509,498 issued on May 30, 1950 to George Heyl. Supplementing the fuel-air mixture in an internal combustion engine by adding oxygen and hydrogen produced by electrolysis.


United States Patent #3,311,097 issued on March 28, 1967 to Georg Mittelstaedt. Introduction of hydrogen and oxygen produced by electrolysis improves fuel economy, increases power, and reduces emissions.


United States Patent #4,023,545 issued on May 17, 1977 to Edward Mosher and John Webster. An on-board electrolysis unit powered by the existing electrical system comprises a stainless steel tank, anode and cathode.


United States Patent #6,209,493 issued on April 3, 2001 to Bill Ross. An on-board electrolysis unit includes a sealed plastic body, reservoir, and shut-offs for low-level, high temperature, and high pressure.